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Child sexual abuse is a major public health problem that continues to be prevalent in our society. Approximately 1 in 10 children will experience sexual abuse before they turn 18. We all play a role in preventing child sexual abuse. To learn more about how to prevent, identify, and respond to child sexual abuse, click on the links below:

 

How Adults Can Help Prevent Child Sexual Abuse

Parents and other caretakers should speak with children openly about sexuality, healthy relationships, and abuse.

These conversations should start early. Teach children that it is never okay for adults to act in a sexual way with children and that adults never need children to “help” them with any of their body parts. 

For more information on how to talk to children about sexual abuse, please visit Stop It Now’s tip sheet on this topic. 

Listen to children and respect their boundaries.

If a child does not want to hug or kiss a friend or relative, honor that boundary rather than requiring physical affection. Whenever possible, ask for a child’s permission before touching them. If a child seems uncomfortable with a particular adult, find a time afterwards to ask them about their discomfort and talk about what is happening.

Caregivers should monitor children’s use of the Internet, social media, and smartphones.

While it is possible for parents to monitor activity without a child’s consent or knowledge, it is often more productive for parents to take the opportunity to start a conversation with their children about their use of technology. Maintaining open communication and emphasizing safety should be high priorities. Parents should avoid taking a punishment-oriented approach to technology use, as this may encourage children to become more secretive about their activities.

For more information on the safe use of technology, check out MCASA's page on Online Safety and the FBI's Parent’s Guide to Internet Safety

How Youth-Serving Organizations Can Help Prevent Child Sexual Abuse

Adopt appropriate prevention policies.

Parents, caregivers, and concerned community members can ask questions about the following measures and advocate for youth-serving organizations and programs to adopt them.

Child safety begins with safe hiring policy. 

When hiring staff and volunteers, organizations should ask screening questions, conduct reference and background checks, and check the sex offender registries. 

Staff and volunteers should be trained to recognize and respond to suspected or disclosed child sexual abuse.

This training should include requirements for reporting. All staff and volunteers should immediately report suspected child abuse directly to authorities. It is not enough for staff to report to a supervisor.

One-on-one interactions—especially in isolated locations—should be avoided.

Choose group activities whenever possible. Consider whether it is ever appropriate for one staff member or volunteer to be alone with one child. If one-on-one time is necessary or unavoidable, these interactions should take place in open, observable areas, or be subject to routine, random observation.

Organizations should be aware of older children’s access to younger children.

For example, programs that pair younger students with older student “buddies” should also seek to eliminate or monitor one-on-one time between older and younger children.

Recognizing the Signs of Child Sexual Abuse

Children may exhibit behavioral signs that may indicate child sexual abuse.

Dramatic changes in behavior, reverting to behaviors common in younger children, or acting out sexually can be major red flags. Children may suffer from anxiety, changes in eating and sleeping habits, or nightmares. A more extensive list of potential warning signs is available here.

Age-inappropriate sexual behavior, knowledge, or vocabulary can be a red flag of sexual abuse.

It is important for parents, caregivers, and teachers to understand normal child development, including development of sexual behaviors and knowledge. More information regarding age-appropriate sexual behaviors of children is available here

Physical signs of child sexual abuse are less common, but should always be taken seriously.

If a child exhibits any physical signs of abuse, it is very important that the child receive an appropriate medical examination. Forensic examinations should be conducted by a forensic nurse examiner or other practitioner who is specially trained in administration of pediatric forensic examinations. For more information about forensic examinations, please contact your local Child Advocacy Center.

Know that not all children respond to abuse in the same way.

Children process trauma differently, and every child victim will have a different response to the abuse. A particular child’s trauma responses may be different from what some people might expect, but this should not be taken to mean that the child is making it up or that the child is “just exaggerating.” All disclosures of abuse should be taken seriously.

How to Respond to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

Understand why children may be afraid to tell, wait a long time before telling, or keep the abuse a secret.

Because 91% of child sexual assaults are perpetrated by someone that the child or family knows, perpetrators often build up a relationship with the child before attempting to abuse them. This process, called “grooming,” often includes building up trust with the child and other family members by spending time together, giving gifts, or otherwise filling a need in the child’s life. Read more on our factsheet on grooming here.

Listen attentively to the child and give them your full attention. Do not probe for additional information beyond what they want to share.

Do not attempt to interview the child yourself or engage in “fact-finding.” The best way to ensure that the investigation is performed by trained professionals is to report the abuse to local law enforcement, Child Protective Services, or both. Consider the child’s safety and privacy when making your next steps.

Remember: virtually without exception, everyone in Maryland is obligated to report child sexual abuse.

It is critical that any disclosure of abuse be reported immediately. Some categories of professionals may have additional considerations regarding reporting. 

Remain calm.

Children often begin by disclosing abuse indirectly in order to determine how adults will react to the information. They may not share everything that occurred, or they may say that the abuse happened to someone else. It is important to remain calm, listen without judgement, and avoid reacting in a way that might indicate to the child that you are upset. If children feel that you are upset or angry, they may shut down and stop communicating about the abuse.

 

MCASA Resources:

  • To order MCASA’s ‘Preventing Child Sexual Abuse’ brochure or to access a downloadable PDF,click here.
  • MCASA’s Online Training for Professionals: Preventing, Identifying, and Responding to Child Sexual Abuse in Maryland. To access this online training, click here.
  • Additional MCASA resources, including fact sheets on child sexual abuse prevention and response, are available here.

Other Resources: